Emergency Response Planning (ERP) for a company usually established by a company in the sense of a requirement on the need of “waze” or “google map” that telling the direction on where to go when handling crisis or incident. Hence, the manual must be established holistically comprising the needs of the staffs, ERTs, Managements and other respective stakeholders if any.
Fire can spread rapidly through your home, leaving you as little as one or two minutes to escape safely once the smoke alarm sounds. There are a few step to act when you faced fire.
Escape planning tips
- Pull together everyone in your household and make a plan. Walk through your home and inspect all possible exits and escape routes. Households with children should consider drawing a floor plan of your home, marking two ways out of each room, including windows and doors. Also, mark the location of each smoke alarm.
- A closed door may slow the spread of smoke, heat and fire. Install smoke alarms in every sleeping room, outside each sleeping area and on every level of the home.
- When you walk through your plan, check to make sure the escape routes are clear and doors and windows can be opened easily.
- Choose an outside meeting place for example like neighbour’s house, a light post, mailbox or a safe distance in front of your home where everyone can meet after they’ve escaped. Make sure to mark the location of the meeting place on your escape plan.
- Have everyone memorize the emergency phone number of the fire department. That way any member of the household can call from a neighbour’s home or a cellular phone once safely outside.
- If windows or doors in your home have security bars, make sure that the bars have emergency release devices inside so that they can be opened immediately in an emergency. Emergency release devices won’t compromise your security – but they will increase your chances of safely escaping a home fire.
- Be fully prepared for a real fire: when a smoke alarm sounds, get out immediately. Residents of high-rise and apartment buildings may be safer “defending in place.”
- Once you’re out, stay out! Under no circumstances should you ever go back into a burning building. If someone is missing, inform the fire department dispatcher when you call. Firefighters have the skills and equipment to perform rescues.
Put your plan to the test
- Practice your home fire escape plan twice a year, making the drill as realistic as possible.
- Make arrangements in your plan for anyone in your home who has a disability.
- Allow children to master fire escape planning and practice before holding a fire drill at night when they are sleeping. The objective is to practice, not to frighten, so telling children there will be a drill before they go to bed can be as effective as a surprise drill.
- It’s important to determine during the drill whether children and others can readily waken to the sound of the smoke alarm. If they fail to awaken, make sure that someone is assigned to wake them up as part of the drill and in a real emergency situation.
- If your home has two floors, every family member must be able to escape from the second floor rooms. Escape ladders can be placed in or near windows to provide an additional escape route. Review the manufacturer’s instructions carefully so you’ll be able to use a safety ladder in an emergency. Practice setting up the ladder from a first floor window to make sure you can do it correctly and quickly. Children should only practice with a grown-up, and only from a first-story window. Store the ladder near the window, in an easily accessible location. You don’t want to have to search for it during a fire.
- Always choose the escape route that is safest – the one with the least amount of smoke and heat – but be prepared to escape under toxic smoke if necessary. When you do your fire drill, everyone in the family should practice getting low and going under the smoke to your exit.
- Closing doors on your way out slows the spread of fire, giving you more time to safely escape.
- In some cases, smoke or fire may prevent you from exiting your home or apartment building. To prepare for an emergency like this, practice “sealing yourself in for safety” as part of your home fire escape plan. Close all doors between you and the fire. Use duct tape or towels to seal the door cracks and cover air vents to keep smoke from coming in. If possible, open your windows at the top and bottom so fresh air can get in. Call the fire department to report your exact location. Wave a flashlight or light-coloured cloth at the window to let the fire department know where you are located.
Pernahkah anda merasa NADI sendiri? Dapatkah anda benar-benar rasa denyutan nadi tersebut? Baik. Jom kita rasakan nadi masing-masing. Menggunakan 2 jari (jari telunjuk dan jari hantu), sentuh bahagian tengah tulang rahang di antara dagu dan cuping telinga. Rasa? Syabas sekiranya anda berjaya mencari nadi di situ. Persoalannya, wujudkah nadi di bahagian tersebut?
Masyarakat umum mengetahui bahawa nadi terletak pada pergelangan tangan dan leher. Namun amat sedikit daripada kita yang tahu bahawa nadi itu wujud di pelbagai tempat lain pada badan. Ada yang lebih kuat dan ada yang lebih halus denyutannya berbanding nadi di pergelangan tangan. Untuk memahami mengapa nadi boleh wujud di bahagian- bahagian lain badan, kita perlu tahu akan apa itu nadi.
Badan kita mempunyai jaringan salur darah yang tidak terkira banyaknya dan kesemua saluran darah ini bermula daripada jantung itu sendiri. Maka, apabila jantung berdegup, darah akan disalurkan ke dalam semua saluran darah (arteri) dan tekanan daripada pengaliran darah ini lah yang membuatkannya berdenyut dan dirasa sebagai NADI. Justeru, mana-mana saluran darah arteri yang hampir dengan kulit boleh dirasakan denyutan nadi padanya. Berikut merupakan bahagian- bahagian badan yang ada denyutan nadi beserta namanya.
Dioxin from a group of highly toxic chemical compound that can cause cancer. Due to the stability of this chemical, the dioxin is not easily to break down and can remain in the body for a long time. Once in the body, it may take between 7 and 11 years for a dioxin's radioactivity to fall to it half-life. This dioxin also can be transfer into the body by the air and dust into the lung. Over 90% of human exposure to dioxins comes through food, mainly animal products, such as dairy, meat, fish, and shellfish.
Type of Dioxin:
- Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs)
- Chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs)
- some Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Properties of Dioxin:
- Colourless and odourless
- Chemical resistant
Dioxin can be found by product of:
- Burning rubbish
- Iron/steel product
- Chlorine bleaching of pulp and paper
- Production of pesticides and herbicides
- Dismantling and recycling electronic products
- Chemical industry
How does the Dioxin effect environmental?
- Dioxin can absorb into the soil and plant.
- Dioxin can enter into the underground water.
- By entering our food chain when livestock eat something contaminated with Dioxin and remain in it fats and continue until consume by human.
- It may be disperse through airborne.
Diseases and acute or short-time exposure effect cause by Dioxin:
– Weight loss
– Skin rashes & discolouration
– Birth defects
– Excessive body hair
– Cigarette smoke also contains small amounts of dioxins.
– Firefighter are more often to exposed or contaminated with dioxin when operation of extinguishing fire.
Viktor Yushchenko, President of the Ukraine, in 2004, was intentionally poisoned with dioxins. - International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and US National Toxicology Program (NTP) NTP has classified one chemical in Agent Orange (dioxin) as “known to be a human carcinogen.”
Yusho incident is an unprecedented mass food (rice brand oil) poisoning by the dioxin that occurred in Japan in 1968
Keracunan adalah reaksi tubuh apabila bahan toksik memasuki ke dalam sistem tubuh manusia melalui :
- Kulit atau mata.
Apakah gejala-gejala keracunan?
Gejala keracunan bergantung kepada jenis bahan toksik yang terlibat, jumlah yang diambil/ terdedah dan usia mangsa.
Ada keracunan yang kesannya timbul serta-merta dan ada yang mengambil tempoh beberapa jam atau hari sebelum menunjukkan gejala.
Gejala-gejala yang sering berlaku ialah:
- Sakit Perut
- Sesak Nafas
Bagaimana saya boleh membantu mangsa keracunan?
Bantuan awal kepada mangsa adalah bergantung kepada jenis bahan toksik yang terlibat. Umumnya, bantuan segera berikut amat diperlukan:
- Alihkan mangsa daripada punca bahan toksik serta-merta
- Tanggalkan pakaian yang tercemar seberapa segera
- Basuh anggota yang terlibat menggunakan air.
- Hantar segera mangsa ke hospital.
- Kenalpasti bahan toksik yang terlibat dan serahkan kepada doktor yang merawat.
Bagaimana saya boleh mencegah keracunan?
Baca label pada botol/bekas sebelum mengambil/memberi sebarang ubatan.